Ultrasound is the cornerstone of gynecological examination techniques. Ultrasound provides much and diverse diagnostic information. A clinical gynecological examination does not always provide full certainty about the condition of the uterus and ovaries. This may be the case if the patient has a very substantial abdomen or has difficulties in relaxing during the examination. This is where ultrasound is especially helpful. An ultrasound examination will occasionally reveal congenital abnormalities or tumors of the uterus and ovaries.
Ultrasound may be used to diagnose tumors of the uterus or ovaries. Uterine fibroids (benign muscle tumors) and cysts of the ovaries have a very characteristic appearance in an ultrasound image and are easy to distinguish. Ultrasound allows some conclusions regarding what type of tumors are seen, i.e., if they are benign or malignant.
Inflammation and endometriosis
Gynecologic damage caused by inflammations, infections or endometriosis may be identified with regular ultrasound. A more reliable method to examine the Fallopian tubes is TSSG, short for Transvaginal Salpingo-SonoGraphy. Here ultrasound (sonography) is used to check if liquid injected into the uterus flows freely through the Fallopian tubes. TSSG is important for studying female infertility. Liquid is also used for a study called hydrosalpingography, a method that shows the presence of polyps and fibroids in the uterine cavity.
Location of IUD
It is easy to localize an IUD within the uterus with ultrasound. The location may be checked immediately after insertion or later, if there is a suspicion that the IUD is malpositioned. An ultrasound examination will show if an IUD that causes problem is located in the lower part of the uterus or has entered the uterine wall during insertion. When there is a suspicion that the IUD has become extruded from the uterus, it is not uncommon to find it where it should be but that the strings (threads) of the device have been retracted into the cervical canal. An ultrasound will also show if pregnancy has occurred despite the presence of an IUD.
Ultrasound for studying and treating infertility
Ultrasound is well suited for studying the different phases of the menstrual cycle and any aberrations in the cycle. It is also possible to visualize the development of ovarian follicles. Ultrasound shows when the follicle is ripe for ovulation and when ovulation has occurred. At the same time, any changes in the endometrium are seen. Ultrasound is crucial when assisted fertilization is planned, examined and performed, e.g., for in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Colposcopy is a method for studying the cervix, vagina and external genitals with an optical magnifying device. Colposcopies are performed by gynecologists familiar with the technique of studying and observing the cervical os (cervical orifice) and with treating diseases of the cervical os, vagina and external genitals.
NOTE! Please book a time for colposcopy by phone, dial 02-2334418.
The pap smear is a method for studying if there are signs of cervical cancer. The pap smear provides also valuable information on gynecological inflammations and infections and on the reasons for the presence of a white vaginal discharge known as leukorrhea.